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  • Amazon parrots (Amazona sp.) originate from Mexico, Central America, South America and the adjacent islands of the West Indies. There are numerous species of Amazon parrots. They are a stocky,…

  • There is a lot of information available about diets for pet birds and as time goes on, our knowledge continues to improve. This is due to heightened awareness of the importance of nutrition…

  • Amphibians (frogs, toads, newts, salmanders and axolotl) are a widely diverse group of ectotherms (cold blooded) animals which, compared with mammals, birds and reptiles, have been rather…

  • The wide range of amphibians might make it difficult to decide which one to start with but some are easy to keep while others are more fragile with very precise environmental needs or have a…

  • An Aortic Thromboembolism (ATE) is an extremely painful, common, life threatening complication of cats with heart disease. It occurs when a blood clot (thrombus) forms (usually in the heart) which then passes down the aorta (the main artery which leaves the heart and lies along the spine before splitting into 2 to go down each leg).

  • What respiratory diseases commonly affect cats? Many cats may be affected by obstructive and allergic respiratory diseases, sometimes called "asthma" or "bronchitis". Although not easy to classify these conditions do share a common finding of "hyper-responsive" or "over-reactive" airways. Inciting agents may act as direct irritants to the airways or provoke an allergic response in the respiratory tract. The end-result is the same: 1) muscle spasms in the bronchi, 2) increased production of mucus, and 3) the accumulation of cellular material in the airways. The airways can become narrowed, and the inability to clear the bronchi of this material leaves the cat susceptible to secondary respiratory infections. In obstructive or allergic lung disease, the cat experiences greatest difficulty during expiration or breathing out. Air may become trapped in the lungs, causing the lungs to over inflate. In some cases, this chronic trapping of air leads to the development of emphysema in the cat.

  • Behaviour changes in older cats in pain. As cats get older changes in their behaviour may be noticed. Exuberant playful (and often crazy!) kitten behaviour gives way to adult cats sleeping in the sun and prowling around the house. We take it for granted that older cats will take even longer naps in the sun or on our beds. It is important, however, to differentiate normal feline behaviours from abnormal ones, as some behaviour changes in aging cats arise from pain and are definitely not normal.

  • A change in the appearance of droppings is often a sign of illness in a pet bird. While not usually specific for any one particular disease, a change in the colour, frequency, volume, or…

  • Anorexia (a loss of appetite), and lethargy (a feeling of listlessness and general inactivity), are commonly seen in sick pet birds. While not diagnostic for any specific disease, they do…

  • Bathing is very important to the proper maintenance of feathers. All birds do it. In the wild a bird may bathe during a rain shower, find a puddle, lake or stream to splash in or nuzzle…